Since 1993, Sequoia personnel have been directly involved in the design, development, implementation and commissioning of a number of the world's most successful smartcard-based Integrated Ticketing Schemes (ITS).  

Sequoia now possesses the documentation set (and the IP) for a Generic ITS architecture, which can be readily adapted to meet the requirements of cities around the world.  

To request further information on Sequoia's documentation, e-mail:

The Generic ITS is expressed as a set of 'Business Requirement Specifications', which identify the fundamental processing elements, upon which a successful ITS is built; with detailed expositions of the generic processing that each of these elements involves.

The Generic ITS:

  • can provide the basis of an entire Automdated Fare Collection (AFC) solution,
  • can be used to fill-in gaps in current specifications,
  • covers multi-modal (eg. bus / rail / ferry) operations, and,
  • can be applied from small single-operator AFC solutions, through to complete Integrated Ticketing Schemes.


For cities preparing to tender for an ITS, Sequoia's Generic ITS significantly reduces the effort required to prepare the technical specification for the tender. Customers can have confidence that all of the important (and frequently overlooked) elements of an ITS are included in the Generic ITS, thus reducing the likelihood of oversight in specification, and the resulting 'completion by variation' which has plagued numerous ITS implementations to-date.